Fig. 5. Effect of garlic extracts on the protein expression of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The highest concentration (100 μg/mL) of garlic extracts that did not cause cytotoxicity to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were evaluated. (A) VG, PG, RG-mediated activation of AMPK in 3T3-L1 cells. (B) Effect of VG, PG, RG on CPT-1 protein expression in 3T3-L1 cells. (C) Effect of VG, PG, RG on FAS expression in 3T3-L1 cells. VG: vinegar pickled garlic, PG: pickled garlic, RG: raw garlic, AMPK: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, CPT-1: carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, FAS: fatty acid synthase, MDI: 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 1 μM dexamethasone, 10 μg/mL insulin. All values are means measured in three independent experiments. Values are mean±standard deviation. Means with the same letter superscripts in the bars do not differ significantly at the 5% level.